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红外热像仪在建筑领域的作用

尽管红外热像仪在建筑工程的应用探讨起步较晚,但其应用方向还是有多方面的。
1、房屋质量缺陷检测
在混凝土建筑物的施工及使用过程中,往往会形成一些缺陷和损伤,造成这些缺陷和损伤的原因是多种多样的,如:因施工原因导致的混凝土结构内部空洞、不密实区、蜂窝及保护层不足、钢筋外露等;因温差、不均匀变形等产生的温度裂缝、变形裂缝等;因腐蚀介质或冻融作用产生的由表及里的层状疏松以及一些受力裂缝等。这些缺陷和损伤往往会严重影响建筑物的承载能力和耐久性,因此是事故处理、施工验收、陈旧建筑物安全性鉴定、进行维修和补强设计时必须检测的项目。
正常情况下的建(构)筑物红外热图像应该是均匀一致的,成像区域的颜色单一均匀,不存在明显的颜色差异。也就是说,不存在明显的色彩异常区。当非正常情况时,如墙体结构存在空洞、蜂窝缺陷时,由于改变了构建表面与内部的热导通性,因此会存在相对于正常部位的红外辐射异常。在这样的情况下,就可快速发现温度异常所代表的潜在问题,通过数据记录分析,找到现实的问题来源,节省了盲目检修的时间。
内部屋顶的红外图像表明中间深色区域为潮湿区域,需要立即维护
2、渗漏检测
由于建筑屋顶或墙面开缝、断裂,水分可渗过屋顶和墙壁中的接口和裂缝并积累起来,容易导致房屋结构部件的腐朽、发霉,问题严重的甚至造成人体健康损害。
而阳光被建筑物吸收和传导的情况均可暴露渗漏部位与周边的温度分布差异。进而对热红外图像产生不同的影响。所以可采用红外热成像技术加以检测、分析判断水分渗入隐匿部位、走水路线等。
墙体开裂漏热
3、外墙饰面质量检测
外墙饰面是建筑色彩的载体,建筑外墙饰面在美化城市的同时,也在给城市的公共安全带来隐患。由于外墙饰面直接暴露在外界环境中,长期受环境的影响,部分附着物,如瓷砖、涂料、玻璃幕墙等都存在被侵蚀、粘结层分解、黏附作用丧失的可能性,“天降横祸”的危险随时存在。
采用红外热像仪成像检测可检查外墙饰面砖表面温度分布,判别饰面砖粘贴质量,即可避免危险作业,又可以快速无接触、大面积扫描建筑饰面砖,从而正确评定饰面砖是否空鼓及空鼓范围,对于建筑物外墙检测技术的研究和发展具有重要的学术价值,同时,对建筑物外墙的维护修缮,避免意外恶性事故的发生具有重要的实际应用价值和良好的社会效益和经济效益。
房屋外墙装饰剥落
4、与其他检测方法相比,红外技术对建筑物外墙装饰物的缺陷的检测所具有的优势主要有:
第一,红外无损检测中的测试仪器与被测物间不仅是非接触的,而且两者间的距离可以很大,便于高楼大厦表面检测的实现,避免操作者处于危险状态。
第二,红外无损检测操作方便,单次可检的面积较大,检测效率较高,只需不多的检测费用即可实现大型建筑物全面检查。
第三,红外建筑物无损检测的应用面较广,适应性强,不用对被测物的表面进行专门处理。
第四,红外检测的灵敏度较高。我们所进行的研究表明,红外无损检测不仅可以检测出建筑物表面在自然条件下所形成的缺陷与损伤,如分层,空鼓,脱粘,积水,结冰,腐蚀等,而且可以发现在施工过程中所造成的一些质量问题,如不当施工导致的空洞,孔洞,渗水,异物夹杂等。

Although the application of infrared thermal imager in building engineering started late, its application direction still has many aspects. 1. Building quality defect detection in the construction and use of concrete buildings, there are often some defects and damage, the causes of these defects and damage are various, such as: the Internal Cavity, non-dense area, the lack of honeycomb and protective layer, the exposed reinforcement, the temperature crack and deformation crack caused by temperature difference and non-uniform deformation; Due to the corrosion of the media or freezing and thawing caused by the surface and the inside of the layer of loose and some stress cracks. These defects and damages often seriously affect the bearing capacity and durability of buildings, so they are necessary to be tested when dealing with accidents, checking and accepting construction, appraising the safety of old buildings, carrying out maintenance and strengthening design. Under normal circumstances, the infrared thermal image of the building should be uniform and uniform, and the color of the imaging area is uniform and there is no obvious color difference. In other words, there is no obvious color anomaly. When the wall structure has cavity and honeycomb defect, the thermal conductivity between the surface and the interior is changed, so the infrared radiation anomaly will exist relative to the normal part. In this case, we can quickly find the potential problems represented by the temperature anomaly, through data analysis, find the actual source of the problem, saving the blind repair time. The infrared image of the inner roof shows that the middle dark area is a damp area, which needs immediate maintenance 2. Leakage detection due to cracks and cracks in the roof or wall of the building, water can seep through the joints and cracks in the roof and walls and accumulate, it is easy to lead to the decay of building structural components, mildew, serious problems and even cause damage to human health. The absorption and transmission of sunlight by the building can expose the difference of temperature distribution between the leakage site and the surrounding area. And that has different effects on the thermal infrared image. Therefore, the infrared thermal imaging technology can be used to detect, analyze and judge the water infiltration hidden parts, water routes and so on. The Exterior Wall facing is the carrier of architectural color. The Exterior Wall facing not only beautifies the city, but also brings hidden danger to the public security of the city. Due to the direct exposure of exterior wall finishes to the external environment and the long-term influence of the environment, some of the attachments, such as ceramic tiles, coatings, glass curtain walls, etc. , may be eroded, the adhesive layer may decompose, and the adhesive function may be lost, the danger of "unexpected disaster" is always present. The temperature distribution on the surface of the exterior wall facing brick can be checked and the sticking quality of the facing brick can be judged by using the infrared thermal imager, therefore, it is of great academic value for the research and development of building exterior wall detection technology to correctly assess whether the facing brick is hollow or not, and for the maintenance and repair of building exterior wall, to avoid the occurrence of accidental malignant accidents has important practical value and good social and economic benefits. Compared with other testing methods, the advantages of infrared technology in detecting the defects of building exterior wall decorations are as follows: First, in the infrared non-destructive testing, the testing instrument and the tested object are not only non-contact, but also the distance between them can be very big, which is convenient for the testing of the surface of the high-rise building and avoids the operator being in dangerous state. Second, infrared non-destructive testing is easy to operate, a single inspection of a larger area, higher detection efficiency, as long as not much testing costs to achieve a comprehensive inspection of large buildings. Thirdly, the infrared nondestructive testing of buildings has wide application and strong adaptability, so it is not necessary to deal with the surface of the measured objects specially. Fourth, the sensitivity of infrared detection is high. Our research shows that infrared non-destructive testing can not only detect the defects and damage of building surface under natural conditions, such as delamination, hollowing, debonding, standing water, icing, corrosion, etc. . And we can find some quality problems in the construction process, such as the void, hole, seepage, foreign inclusion caused by improper construction, etc. .

发布日期:[2020-3-5]  共阅[112]次  〖打印此页〗 返回列表

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